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Doxurbicin

Doxurbicin

Mesothelioma Drugs: Doxurbicin
 
 
What is Doxurbicin?
 
 
Doxurbicin is sued in combination with other drugs to treat certain types of cancer (primarily bladder, lung, stomach and ovarian cancer). Doxurbicin is administered as a powder or solution and is mixed with liquid to be injected through an IV. Doxurbicin is administered once every 3 to 4 weeks and the length of treatment is dependent on the types of drugs you are currently receiving, your medical condition, how well you respond to said treatment and the severity of your cancer. 
 
 
In general, there are three traditional mesothelioma treatments: surgery to extract the cancerous cells from the body (only applied to patients lucky enough to detect the disease at an early stage), chemotherapy, which utilizes a variety of drugs to kill the cancer and radiation therapy, which administers high doses of x-rays to terminate the cancerous cells. Frequently, mesothelioma patients must undergo a combination of these treatment options to prolong life. 
 
 
Doxurbicin is currently not available for clinical use. The patent for the drug expired during the winter of 2009; however, Doxurbicin is protected against generic competitors until 2014 because the Food and Drug Administration deems the drug as an “orphan drug”—a designation that awards Doxurbicin an extended protection as a way of rewarding pharmaceutical companies for researching and producing drugs for rare diseases. Doxurbicin is classified as an orphan drug because it affects less than 200,000 people in the United States. 
 
Adverse Side Effects of Doxurbicin:
 
 
Adverse side effects of Doxurbicin include: vomiting, hair loss, nausea and life-threatening heart damage. Moreover, Doxurbicin can cause neutropenia, which is a decrease in white blood cells.More mild side effects of Doxurbicin include: discoloration of urine and fatigue. 
When cumulative dosage of Doxurbicin increases to 550 mg, the risks of developing heart problems dramatically increases. Doxurbicin cardiotoxicity is characterized by dose-dependent declines in mitochondirla oxidative phosphorylation. 
 
 
How does Doxurbicin Fight Mesothelioma?
 
 
Doxurbicin may prove effective in combatting mesothelioma cancer because the drug interacts with DNA by way of inhibition and intercalation. This impedes the progression of the enzyme topoisomerase II which relaxes supercoils in DNA strands for transcription. Doxurbicin brings stability to the topoisomerase II complex after it breaks down the DNA chain for replication, inhibiting the DNA double helix from resealing and thereby halting the process of replication. As a result, mesothelioma cancer cells are blocked from spreading and proliferating beyond the disease’s point of origin. Doxurbicin’s efficacy rates; however, are elastic to diagnosis. If mesothelioma is not caught in its early stages proliferation will already have occurred. 
 

Mesothelioma Case Discovery

Mesothelioma Case Discovery

 

What is Discovery (Law)?

In the United States, discovery refers to the pre-trial phase in a legal suit in which each party, through civil procedure, obtains evidence from the opposing side by means of legal devices including requests for answers to interrogatories, as well as the requests for depositions, the production of documents and admissions. The discovery portion of a trial, in most civil suits, is where a settlement or decision is usually reached. Both parties typically opt to negotiate during this portion of the trial because it serves as an accurate forecaster to reveal which side has the better case. Because the majority of information is exchanged during discovery, the sides will negotiate and affirm a settlement to take the courts (and the associated costs) out of the equation. Although the majority of civil cases end in the discovery phase, requests for discovery may be objected to. When this occurs, the requesting party may seek the assistance of the court system through the filing of a motion to compel discovery. 

In the United States, civil discovery is a wide-ranging legal phase that may involve any material which is deemed as reasonably calculated to lead to qualified evidence. Admissible evidence in this regard is a far broader standard than relevance, because it anticipates the exploration of evidence that may be deemed relevant as opposed to evidence which is actually relevant. 

Certain types of information are withheld from the discovery phase, including information that is regarded as privileged. For example, juvenile criminal records are typically not accepted, nor are peer review findings by hospitals allowed in the discovery phase. 

What is Mesothelioma Cancer?

Mesothelioma cancer is a rare disease that evolves from the transformation of cells in the mesothelium, the protective layer of cells that covers the lungs, heart and abdomen. The bulk of mesothelioma cases derive from asbestos exposure. When undisturbed asbestos poses minimal threats to human beings; however, when disturbed, asbestos releases cancerous dust into the air. When these filaments are inhaled they build-up in the protective tissues and eventually eat-away at the lining. As the cancer eats away it proliferates to remote areas of the body, forming tumors along the way. 

The main problem with mesothelioma is that the disease is nearly impossible to diagnose. Complications regarding mesothelioma diagnosis stem from the cancer’s slow-developing symptoms and innocuous cellular structure. Frequently, a mesothelioma patient will not feel sick or notice symptoms until 25-50 years after their first exposure to asbestos. Unfortunately, when symptoms become tangible, the disease has proliferated to the point where it becomes inoperable. When mesothelioma advances into its latter stages, only palliative treatment options are available to mitigate the associated symptoms. These treatment methods are elective and will only be administered to bolster the patient’s quality of life. Again, in the disease’s advanced stages, mesothelioma cancer is deemed inoperable. 

What is Mesothelioma Case Discovery?

If you have been recently diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma cancer, it is important that you talk to a mesothelioma lawyer concerning your legal options. Choosing to file a mesothelioma suit will not only help bring your employer—and the asbestos industry as a whole—to justice, but the case will also bear potential to receive compensation to provide compensation for missed wages, medical expenses and other expenses associated with asbestos-related conditions. 

One of the most important steps in a mesothelioma case is discovery. Choosing the right mesothelioma lawyer to guide you through this process could mean the difference between winning and losing your mesothelioma case. 

Mesothelioma case discovery is the process in which your mesothelioma lawyer collects and investigates information connected to your case. The discovery process is where working with your mesothelioma lawyer shows its benefits, as the legal professional will handle every matter of the mesothelioma investigation. Take note; however, that you may be requested to discuss with your employer’s mesothelioma lawyers to answer questions regarding your case. When asked questions, be sure to answer them honestly and completely as possible. 

During the mesothelioma case discovery phase, mesothelioma lawyers will be very thorough and personal when asking these questions. Even some of the most insignificant details may help you win your case so be sure to answer these inquiries to the fullest extent possible. Some questions you must be prepared to answer during the mesothelioma case discovery include the following:

• What is your employment history?

• What is your medical history?

• Do you have any other unrelated health problems?

• Do you have a family history of asbestos-related diseases or cancer?

• Do you smoke? Have you smoked in the past? Understand that this does not cause or increase the probability of developing mesothelioma cancer. 

• Where and how were you exposed to asbestos fibers?

• Did your employer implement any regulations or protocol to limit your asbestos exposure?

• When were you first exposed to asbestos fibers?

The above list represents only a sliver of the potential questions asked during mesothelioma case discovery. There are a number of other questions that will be asked regarding your diagnosis and the mesothelioma treatment you received. You may also be required to fill-out interrogatories—which is similar to a questionnaire—to further illuminate your mesothelioma claim.

In addition to an interrogatory, you will also be required to partake in a deposition. During depositions, you will be sworn under oath and asked to explain or illuminate certain questions regarding your mesothelioma case. All depositions are recorded and videotaped for formal documentation purposes. Before you begin answer said questions, you should meet with your mesothelioma lawyer to review likely inquiries. The bulk of depositions will only last a few hours, but in some situations, a deposition may take place over a period of a few days. 

Your mesothelioma lawyer, along with your employer’s mesothelioma lawyer, will partake in the deposition portion of a mesothelioma discovery case. Both sets of lawyers will also contact people close to you, including your family members, co-workers and previous employers to gather more information regarding you and your illness. Your medical professional who is responsible for diagnosing your cancer may also be asked to answer questions concerning your medical condition (both present and past) and the types of treatment decisions rendered. During the deposition both sets of lawyers will be extremely thorough with their questioning to develop a strong case. 

The length of your mesothelioma discovery case will depend on the medical urgency of your claim and how long your employer and your mesothelioma lawyer needs to go over the necessary information. To be as thorough as possible, the mesothelioma discovery process may last several months; however, if your mesothelioma is considered extremely time sensitive, the process may be expedited to resolve your claim before your cancer takes your life. 

Medical Expenses Suit

Medical Expenses Suit

 

Medical Expenses Defined:

A medical expense is defined as any cost related to the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, convalescence and all expenses tied to treatment for any part or function of the body. These expenses are associated with supplies, counseling, equipment and therapy to improve, relieve or cure mental and physical discomfort from a personal injury or infection. 

Examples of medical costs or expenses include the following:

• Artificial teeth

• Artificial limbs

• Books and magazines or any supply used by a visually-impaired individual

• Cosmetic surgery, only if deemed necessary to improve a condition or deformity related to an accident, disease or congenital abnormality

• All expenses related to doctor or physician visits

• Exercise or training programs if a medical professional recommends the program as necessary treatment for a specific condition

• Additional rent or utility payments for a larger residence required in order to provide space for medical help, such as nurses or attendants

• Eye surgery when it is not administered for cosmetic purposes

• Guide dogs or any other animal utilized by hearing impaired, visually impaired or otherwise physically disabled individual

• All costs associated with hospital care

• Insurance premiums for medical care 

• Residence or household help for nursing care services

• Court, legal and all fees associated with a suit to authorize treatment for mental illnesses

• Lifetime care advance payments

• Costs associated with nursing care

• Costs associated with prescription drugs and medicines

• Medical aids, including hearing aids, wheelchairs, eyeglasses, crutches, guide dogs, contact lenses etc.

• Nursing home expenses, including the cost of medical care, meals and lodging if the primary reason for staying home is to obtain medical care

• Costs associated with diagnostic/imaging tests, including all x-ray services

• Transportation costs needed to obtain medical care

• Transplant surgeries

• Reclining chairs or any tools purchased from doctor’s advice by an individual with a diagnosed cardiac condition

All medical expenses associated with personal injury case, in general, cost victims tens of thousands of dollars. Therefore, medical expenses must be regarded as a primary factor in determining the net worth of your lawsuit.

What is a Medical Expenses Suit?

A medical expenses suit is a subsection of a personal injury claim that attempts to secure compensation for all costs associated with convalescence. A medical expenses suit, therefore, seeks compensation for all of the patient’s costs that were deemed necessary to diagnose, mitigate or cure the injury or disease. Medical expenses suits are filed by patients who suffered an injury or contracted a disease because of an employer or entity’s negligence. The disease or injury would not have occurred if the entity or employer did not put the patient at risk. Therefore, the medical expense suit is filed to compensate injured workers or individuals who sustained an injury or contracted a disease because of an entity’s reckless or negligent behavior. 

What are the Common Mesothelioma Medical Expenses?

Mesothelioma cancer is a rare disease that is highly invasive and deadly. The cancer develops from the transformation of cells in the mesothelium, which is the two-layered membrane that lines the lungs and other vital organs in the body. Mesothelioma treatment options, due to delays in diagnosis, are typically palliative in nature. Complications regarding diagnosis stem from the cancer’s slow-developing symptoms and innocuous cellular structure—a patient will not feel sick or notice symptoms until 25-50 years after their initial exposure to asbestos. 

Mesothelioma cancer derives from asbestos exposure. When left alone, asbestos does not pose a risk to human beings; however, when disturbed, the mineral propels cancerous filaments into the air. When these carcinogens are inhaled they stick to the mesothelium and other protective tissues in the lungs and abdomen. Over time, the cancerous dust eats at way at these shields perpetuating the formation of tumors. These cancerous cells then proliferate into other areas of the body. It is only at this time, that symptoms become tangible. Unfortunately, when mesothelioma cancer is finally detected it is too late—the cancer in its advanced stages is deemed inoperable. 

Mesothelioma treatment methods typically include surgery to extract the tumor (this mesothelioma treatment option is only undertaken during its first stage), and chemotherapy and/or radiation to mitigate the attached symptoms. Palliative treatment options are primarily suggested because the latency period for the cancer is exceptionally long. 

Medical expenses attached to mesothelioma cancer are quite high, because of the cancer’s tendency to proliferate and destroy the body’s vital organs. That being said, the type of mesothelioma treatment applied is elastic to the size of the tumor, the age of the patient and the level of proliferation.

Medical expenses associated with mesothelioma cancer are often high. Furthermore, when a mesothelioma patient starts noticing symptoms and a diagnosis is made, he or she is typically advanced in age and/or retired. The advanced age of a median mesothelioma patient is because of the cancer’s lengthy latency period. It is necessary to understand the medical expenses attached to mesothelioma treatment because it will help you file the appropriate claim against your employer or the entity that is responsible for your asbestos exposure.

Common medical costs of mesothelioma cancer include: 

• Costs associated with diagnostic imaging tests including: MRI’s, chest x-rays, PET’s and CT Scans. These imaging tests are undertaken to detect the cancer

• The cost of long-term medical care

• Cost of clinical trials

• Costs associated with aggressive mesothelioma treatments, including: radiation therapy, chemotherapy, mesothelioma surgery and biopsies

Factors that will affect my Mesothelioma Medical Expenses:

Mesothelioma medical expenses will vary from patient to patient. There are several factors which affect mesothelioma medical expenses, including the patient’s age, their side effects and the characteristics of their medical cancer, including the disease’s proliferation and its origin point in the body. 

To file a mesothelioma cancer medical expenses suit you must contact a mesothelioma lawyer. These legal professionals will expedite the filing by investigating your employer’s actions and more specifically their adherence to your jurisdiction’s asbestos laws. Failure to adhere to asbestos regulations places liability on the employer if one of their employee’s developed an asbestos-related disease. 

Mesothelioma lawyers are able to expedite said filings through an understanding of the legal process and acknowledgement of your jurisdiction’s particular asbestos laws. To file a claim you must first be diagnosed with mesothelioma cancer or another asbestos-related disease by a licensed medical professional. You will not be reimbursed for your mesothelioma medical expenses if you are not formally diagnosed with the disease. 

After receiving diagnosis you must consult with a mesothelioma lawyer to discuss your case. During the consultation you will go over your employment history and detail how and why you were exposed to asbestos. The lawyer will ask questions concerning your workplace’s protocol and whether or not your employer followed certain asbestos regulations. If it is discovered that your employer was negligent regarding your asbestos exposure, he/she will formally file a suit to recoup all of your mesothelioma medical expenses. To remove uncertainty and avoid court fees, the bulk of mesothelioma claims are settled out of court. In these situations, a settlement is affirmed following the discovery portion of the claim and after negotiations takes place between your mesothelioma lawyer and your employer. 

Carboplatin

Carboplatin

 

Mesothelioma Drugs

What is Carboplatin?

Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug administered to patients to fight some forms of cancer, including lung, head, neck and mesothelioma cancers. Carboplatin was introduced during the late 1980s and has since become popular during the clinical treatment of the aforementioned diseases. 

Carboplatin’s popularity stems from the fact that the drug imposes few side effects, especially when compared to its parent compound cisplatin. 

Carboplatin, which is commonly referred to by its brand name Paraplatin, was formally approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1989. Carboplatin is a modified form of Cisplatin, which was commonly used to fight mesothelioma and other forms of lung cancer during the 1970s. 

Chemotherapy drugs, such as carboplatin, work in a variety of ways. Carboplatin’s efficacy is found in its ability to break through the cell walls and adhere to the cell’s DNA. This attaching property impedes the cell from dividing (cancer cells divide very rapidly). Drugs like carboplatin are attracted to these cells are therefore able to target specific cancer cells. In this light, carboplatin serves as an alkylating agent which means it is able to attach to the cancer cell’s DNA, ultimately leading to the cell’s death. 

Side Effects of Carboplatin:

In comparison to cisplatin, the most tangible benefit offered by carboplatin is found in its ability to reduce side effects, particularly the elimination of nephrotoxic properties. Vomiting and nausea are easily controlled and far less severe in carboplatin when compared to other chemotherapy drugs. 

The primary drawback associated with carboplatin use stems from its myelosuppressive effect. This side effect causes platelet and blood cell production of bone morrow in the body to rapidly decrease, sometimes to as low as 105 of its natural production levels. 

Carboplatin is not as strong as cisplatin; depending on the patient’s cancer, carboplating may have 1/8th to 1/45th the effectiveness of its sister drug. The clinical standard of dosage for the drug is typically a 4:1 ratio compared to cisplatin—four times the amount of carboplatin is needed to achieve the same efficacy as one dose of cisplatin. 

How does Carboplatin Fight Mesothelioma Cancer?

Carboplatin is used to combat several different forms of cancer, but is most commonly administered to treat lung cancer. Carboplatin is typically conducted as a day patient treatment method, involving a blood culture the day before. Carboplatin is administered via infusion; the regimen is administered as a 21-day cycle. On the first day of mesothelioma treatment, the patient is administered both gemcitabine and carboplating. The following week, on the same day, the mesothelioma patient is only given a small dose of gemcitabine. There then follows a recuperation period of approximately two weeks, which compeltes the carboplatin cycle for mesothelioma cancer. 

The following cycle is administered after the rest period concludes and ends three weeks after the first injection of carboplatin. Typically 4-6 cycles of mesothelioma treatment are provided over a period of 3-4 months to complete the full course of treatment. This form of mesothelioma treatment aims at preventing the further proliferation of the cancer or in some cases a reduction of the mesothelioma tumor by as much as 80%. 

Medical professionals are constantly searching for effective ways to treat mesothelioma cancer. A number of clinical trials are currently underway to test various chemotherapy drugs, which are often combined with one another to determine an appropriate mix to battle disease. Clinical trials are frequently conducted to find the most effective means to fight malignant mesothelioma. Carboplatin is often used in these trials and in combination with other mesothelioma drugs to find a more effective treatment method. 

Phase I Clinical Trials combining Carboplatin and other mesothelioma drugs will determine what combinations are effective in fighting the cancer. When researchers pinpoint a combination that appears effective, Phase II Clinical trials commence. Results of said trials reveal that carboplatin in combination with pemetrexed may prove effecting in fighting mesothelioma cancer. Moreover, several studies have shown that carboplatin, when combined with Alimta, is moderately effective, with minimal toxicity, in fighting mesothelioma cancer. 

There are several on-going clinical trials that utilize carboplatin in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to treat mesothelioma cancer. These trials are currently recruiting mesothelioma patients to observe efficacy rates. 

Pemetrexed

Pemetrexed

 

What is Pemetrexed?

Pemetrexed is a chemotherapy drug marketed and manufactured by the Eli Lilly Company. The drug is primarily used to combat Pleural Mesothelioma cancer and other forms of non-small cell lung cancers. 

The molecular body of Pemetrexed was developed by Edward Taylor at Princeton University. The drug was clinically developed by Eli Lilly and Company in 2004. The drug is used for the treatment of breast cancer, mesothelioma cancer, pancreatic cancer, non-small cell lung cancers, malignant mesothelioma and colon cancer. 

Pemetrexed is chemically constructed like folic acid; the drug is classified as a folate antimetabolite chemotherapy drug. The drug works by inhibiting three enzymes utilized in pyrimidine and purine synthesis (thymidylate synthase, glycinamide ribonucloetide formyltransferase and dihydrofolate reductase). By inhibiting the formation of pyrimidine nucleotides and precursor purines, Pemetrexed prevents the formation of RNA and DNA, which are both required for the survival and growth of both cancer cells and normal cells. 

In the winter of 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Pemetrexed for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma cancer—a type of cancerous tumor that is located in the lining of the lungs. The FDA approved Pemetrexed to fight malignant mesothelioma only as a combined effort with cisplatin. In September of 2008, The Food and Drug Administration approved Pemetrexed as a first-line treatment—once again only in conjunction with cisplatin—to combat locally-advanced and metastatic non-small cell lung cancers for patients with non-squamous histology. A clinical phase III study revealed benefits of maintenance use of Pemetrexed for non-squamos patients. Currently, the drug is undergoing clinical trials to be used against esophagus cancer and other diseases the mouth area. 

Pemetrexed is recommended in conjunction with carboplatin for a first-line treatment method of advanced forms of non-small cell lung cancers. That being said, the efficacy or toxicity of Pemetrexed with cisplatin compared to Pemetrexed with carboplatin has yet to be established beyond what is typically though about carboplatin or cisplatin drug therapy. 

Side Effects of Pemetrexed:

Whether administered by itself or in combination with cisplatin, Pemetrexed yields the following side effects:

• Patient will experience decreased blood cell counts, as documented by a Complete Blood Count.

• Patient will experience Sleepiness and Mental fatigue. These side effects may be reduced through an Off-label prescription of Provigil. 

• Explosive Diarrhea

• Vomiting and Nausea. Pemetrexed possesses an emetogenic effect that may be managed with prophylactic antiemetics

• Patient will experience mouth, throat or lip blisters/sores. Oral ulcers may be mitigated by strong oral hygeiene practices, including rinsing/washing of the mouth with salt water following any consumption of drink or food

• Patient will experience a severe loss of appetite

• Skin rash is common with Pemetrexed. Doctor-prescribed steroids that are administered the day before or the day of infusion of Pemetrexed is typically applied to avoid these side effects

• Patient will experience significant constipation 

• Low platelets, which will increase your chance of bleeding

• Low white blood cells, which give you a greater chance of developing an infection. If this mesothelioma treatment gives way to a fever above 100.4 degrees you must call your doctor immediately. 

• Pemetrexed decreases your red blood cell count. Low red blood cells will make you get tired easily, make you appear pale and decrease your stamina. 

Pemetrexed and Mesothelioma Cancer:

When Pemetrexed is applied through an IV or orally the drug is commonly referred to by its Trademark name—ALIMTA; both forms of the drug are used to treat malignant pleural mesothelioma cancer. This disease, which affects the inside lining of the chest cavity, is mitigated when ALIMTA is combined with cisplatin—an anti-cancer medicine that is applied when extraction surgery is not an option.  

Pleural mesothelioma cancer is a rare disease that forms from the transformation of cells in the abdominal cavity, the chest cavity and the cavity surrounding your heart. These cells protect your organs by producing a lubricating fluid that enables your organs to freely move around. For instance, these fluids make it easier for your lungs to move inside your chest during everyday breathing.

The tissues formed by the aforementioned cells are referred to as the mesothelium. Malignant tumors of the mesothelium give way to mesothelioma cancer. Approximately 3 out of every 4 mesothelioma patients have their infection start in their chest cavity (known as pleural mesothelioma). 

The primary risk associated with the development of pleural mesothelioma is asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma, in all cases, is rare, with an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 new cases developing each year in the states. Mesothelioma incidences; however, have slowly decreased since the early 1990s. This decrease is widely due to increased safety efforts taken by companies and state governments to limit asbestos exposure. 

More than 50% of mesothelioma patients have pain in the side of their lower back or chest. The majority of mesothelioma patients will report shortness of breath, while fewer will exhibit weight loss, cough, fever, sweating, trouble swallowing, explosive diarrhea and fatigue. Other symptoms associated with malignant mesothelioma cancer include: swelling of the face and arms, muscle weakness and hoarseness. The majority of mesothelioma patients will exhibit symptoms a few months before they are formally diagnosed. If you have ever been exposed to asbestos and have these symptoms, you must see a medical professional as soon as possible. 

Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel

 
What is Paclitaxel? 
 
 
Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor applied to cancer patients to combat the disease. Paclitaxel was discovered in a U.S. National cancer Institute program at the Research Triangle Organization. The drug is derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree. When it was initially developed commercial—by Bristol-Myers Squibb—the drug was given the generic name TAXOL. In this formation, Paclitaxel is dissolved in etahnol and Cremophor EL. A revised formulation, where Paclitaxel is adhered with albumin is sold under the generic name Abraxane. 
 
 
Currently, Paclitaxel is used to treat patients with ovarian, lung, breast neck and head cancer. Paclitaxel is also used to prevent restenosis. The drug stabilizes microtubules and as a result, interferes with the natural breakdown of microtubules during cellular division. When combined with docetaxel, Paclitaxel forms the drug category of the taxanes. 
 
 
While offering significant improvement in patient care, Paclitaxel is regarded as a relatively controversial chemotherapy drug. Original concern over the drug stems from the environmental impact of its source—Paclitaxel is no longer used from the Pacific yew tree. Moreover, the assignment of rights and the name itself were the subject of Congressional hearings and public debate. 
 
 
As a taxane—compounds that are found in natural sources—Paclitaxel attempts to prevent the traditional progression of cell division, making cells unable to divide into sibling structures. Research suggests that Paclitaxel induces a programmed cell termination or apoptosis. 
 
 
Paclitaxel was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration during the summer of 1992 for the treatment of lung, ovarian and breast cancer. Paclitaxel is also used to combat head and neck cancer, as well as small cell lung cancers and bladder cancers. Paclitaxel is also under investigation for mesothelioma treatment. To fight mesothelioma cancer, Paclitaxel is combined with cisplatin—the platinum-containing chemo drug. Paclitaxel is prescribed worldwide and is applied through an IV once every 2 or 3 weeks. 
 
 
Paclitaxel Side Effects:
 
 
Common side effects associated with Paclitaxel include: loss of appetite, change in taste, vomiting, nausea, brittle or thinning hair, pain in the arms, legs and joints, changes in the colors of finger and toe nails and tingling in the patient’s hands and toes. More severe side effects attached to Paclitaxel include: unusual bleeding and bruising, dizziness, difficulty swallowing, severe exhaustion, skin rash, female infertility, facial flushing, explosive diarrhea, persistent cough and extreme fatigue. The majority of these side effects are related with the excipient used. Allergies to drugs such as teniposide, polyoxyethylated and cyclosporine indicate an increased risk of adverse side effects of Paclitaxel. Before Paclitaxel is administered, the patient will receive a small dose of Dexamethasone to mitigate some of these adverse side effects. Moreover, an application of Leuprolide may prevent—according to mice studies—ovarian damage. 
 
 
How does Paclitaxel Work?
 
 
Paclitaxel-treated cells are targeted for defects in their spindle assembly, chromosome segregation and cellular division. Dissimilar to other tubulin-targeting drugs that inhibit microtubule assembly, Paclitaxel stabilizes the microtubule polymer and shields to from detachment or damage. As a result, chromosomes are not able to achieve a metaphase spindle configuration. This mechanism blocks the progression of mitosis and a prolonged activation of the mitotic checkpoint triggers instability or a reversion to the G-phase of the cycle without incurring cellular division. 
 
 
Paclitaxel’s ability to inhibit spindle function is typically attributed to its suppression of microtubule dynamics; however, recent studies have shown that suppression of dynamics takes place at concentrations that are ruled significantly lower than those required to block mitosis from occurring. At higher therapeutic concentrations, Paclitaxel will appear to suppress microtubule detachment—this process is typically activated during mitosis. The adhering site for v is identified as being on the beta-tubulin sub unit.  
 
 
With regards to clinical use, Paclitaxel is approved in the United Kingdom for breast, lung and ovarian cancers. The bulk of oncologists recommend that Paclitaxel should be used as a second-line treatment for ovarian cancers. 
 
 
Aside from its clinical use, Paclitaxel  is used in a number of biomedical and biological research experiments as a microtubule stabilizer. In tests involving microtubules, including motility assays, scientists typically rely on Paclitaxel to maintain a microtubule integrity only in the absence of several nucleating factors and other stabilizing elements located in the cell. For instance, the drug is used in vitro tests of drugs that attempt to alter the behavior of motor proteins or for the clinical examinations of mutated motor proteins. In rare cases, Paclitaxel is used for in vivo examinations; the drug may be fed to test organisms (mice or fruit flies) or injected into cells to inhibit microtubule fragmentation or to increase the amount of microtubules in the cell. 
 
 
Paclitaxel History of Clinical Trials:
 
 
Paclitaxel Phase I clinical trials began in the Spring of 1984; the decision to advance to stage clinical trials was affirmed later in the year. Subsequent and larger clinical trials to test Paclitaxel required more bark. Although 12,000 pounds of bark was taken from the environment, it was recognized, in 1986, that the demand for Paclitaxel might be substantial and that an excess of 60,000 pounds of bark was required as a minimum. This large amount brought several environmental concerns to the forefront, specifically regarding the impact on the yew population. 
 
 
The first public reports from phase II trials were released in May of 1998 and showed a tremendous effect in melanoma patients and a fantastic response at a rate of 30% for patients suffering from ovarian cancer. At this stage in clinical trials, several oncologists and leaders in the medicine community, calculated the synthesis of enough Paclitaxel to treat melanoma and ovarian cancer cases in the United states would require the destruction of 360,000 trees per year. For the first time in the drug’s existence, serious consideration was given concerning the problem of supply. 
 
 
In response to the supply problem, the National Cancer Institute sough association with a pharmaceutical company to secure funding for the further collection of raw materials, the funding needed to pay for a large proportion of clinical trials and the ability to isolate Taxol. Only 4 companies responded to the NCI’s pleae, including the American giant Bristol-Myers Squibb. In 1990, Bristol-Meyers applied to trademark the name taxol as TAXOL. During this time, Paclitaxel replaced taxol as the generic name of the compound. 
 
 

Onconase

Onconase

 
What is Onconase? 
 
 
Onconase is the trademark name given to Ranpirnase, a ribonuclease enzyme found in the Northern Leopard Frog. Onconase is currently being studied to combat peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma cancer. The chemotherapy drug is manufactured by Tamir Biotechnology Inc. headquartered in Monmouth Junction, NJ. Onconase is demonstrated as a selective cytotoxic against cancerous tumor cells and has thus, been used empirically to combat malignant mesothelioma cancer. Some mesothelioma patients, in the aforementioned clinical trials, have enjoyed a prolonged survival rate following the administration of Onconase. 
 
 
According to Tamir Biotechnology Inc, Onconase is a biopharmaceutical product candidate that works in a similar fashion to RNA interference. Onconase is an RNase that defeats the challenge of locating RNA for therapeutic reasons while, at the same time, enabling the creation of a new class of therapies for the treatment of viral, cancer and other life-challenging medical conditions. Currently, the company is conducting a Phase II clinical trial that uses Onconase in conjunction with PEMETREXED and Carboplatin for patients with non-small cell lung and/or non-squamous lung cancer. 
 
 
According to Tamir Biotechnology, Onconase is a first-in-class chemotherapy drug that utilizes proprietary ribonuclease technology. Onconase is created by isolating a natural protein produced naturally by the leopard frog; Onconase, according to laboratory and clinical trials, is shown to target cancerous cells while sparing healthy/normal ones. Onconase triggers apoptosis, the natural termination of cells, through multiple molecular mechanisms of a synthetic action. 
 
 
Onconase is a chemotherapy agent that is currently being tested for all mesothelioma patients. Like the bulk of mesothelioma chemotherapy drugs, Onconase reaches the cancer by specifically targeting rapidly-dividing cells. Once the drug is administered, Onconase binds to these tumors cells, ultimately inhibiting their growth and causing their death. Onconase stands out from other chemo drugs because it causes manageable side effects. 
 
 
Although Onconase is still in testing phases, the United States Food and Drug Administration recognizes the drug’s potential in mesothelioma treatment. The Food and Drug Administration granted Onconase an orphan drug classification to speed-up testing phases and give the drug the opportunity to be approved faster. Onconase is also regarded as a helpful candidate for the treatment of lung and breast cancer. 
 
 
How Does Onconase Work?
 
 
Onconase is administered through an IV each week for 30 minute intervals. The amount of weeks a patient receives varies depending on several factors, including the patient’s overall health, their initial response to the treatment and whether another chemotherapy drug is being administered. When Onconase adheres to the surface of cancerous cells, it is said to penetrate the cell’s protective membranes. Once the drug enters the cell, Onconase interferes with the messages and information within the cancerous cell, causing a significant interruption in its ability to process. This eventually leads to the termination of the cancerous cells, promoting the shrinking of cancerous tumors. 
 
 
Onconase is typically used in conjunction with other chemotherapy drugs or chemotherapy agents to improve its efficacy and potency. Onconase will cause minor side effects which are regarded as significantly more manageable than those caused by other chemotherapy practices. In most patients, Onconase will yield the following side effects: hair loss, nausea, fatigue and headaches. 
 
 
Is Onconase Effective in Battling Mesothelioma Cancer?
 
 
A 2003 Phase II clinical trial of Onconase served as an early test of the drug’s efficiency in combatting mesothelioma cancer. A team of researchers tested Onconase in 105 patients (39 of whom had previously undergone mesothelioma chemotherapy with no results). Each patient was given Onconase via an IV for 30 minutes each week. In general, researchers noticed a median survival rate between six and eight months. These survival rates are comparable to or better than a number of types of mesothelioma chemotherapy treatments, including cisplatin and doxorubicin. 
 
 
Following this test, researchers conducted a Phase III clinical trial of Onconase that involved 415 mesothelioma cancer patients. During this trial, one group of mesothelioma patients was given a combination of doxorubicin and Onconase, while the other group was given doxorubicin as a single medication. The results showed no significant difference—with regards to median survival—between the two groups. Patients receiving both mesothelioma treatment methods lived, on average, for 11 months, a minor improvement to the 10.7 months average that patients experienced while taking doxorubicin on its own. However, researchers noticed a significant improvement among 130 mesothelioma patients who had previously received chemotherapy without any results. Among these mesothelioma patients, adding Onconase to doxorubicin extended the patient’s life by an average of 1.5 months. 
 

What is ALIMTA

What is ALIMTA

 
The generic name for ALIMTA is pemetrexed (this name is only applied if the drug is injected into the patient). ALIMTA is a chemotherapy drug that is applied to fight malignant pleural mesothelioma cancer. Chemotherapy consists of mesothelioma treatment with one or multiple anticancer drugs that kill cancerous bodies. ALIMTA works by impeding with a crucial process that enables cancer cells to spread and reproduce throughout the body. In a specific sense, ALIMTA works by interfering with activity of multiple enzymes that are needed to help the cancer grow. 
 
 
Like a number of mesothelioma patients, you might wonder what ALIMTA treatment is like. There are a number of things you must understand before undergoing this type of treatment. First, you will receive this type of mesothelioma treatment at your local doctor’s office, hospital or clinic. Secondly, ALITMA mesothelioma therapy is given through a needle that is inserted into one of your veins. This process is known as an “infusion”; an infusion of ALIMTA takes roughly 10 minutes to administer. Moreover, you may also be given another type of chemotherapy drug to combat your mesothelioma cancer. Your medical professional will explain the exact type of therapy you will be given to fight your cancer.
 
 
If you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you must immediately tell your medical doctor. ALITMA can harm your nursing or unborn child. Your doctor will advise you to use efficient contraception to prevent pregnancy while you are undergoing ALIMTA treatment. 
 
 
For the first week of ALIMTA treatment you will be required to take a folic acid pill (a type B vitamin) every day. Your medical professional will advise you on what exactly to take, but you must make sure that you are consuming between 500 and 1,000 micrograms per day. This amount, which is typically found in a standard multi-vitamin capsule, may be purchased over the counter. You will continue to consume these folic acids every day until 3 weeks after your last cycle of ALIMTA. 
 
 
Your healthcare team will also give you a shot of Vitamin B12 the week before you start this mesothelioma treatment course. Your medical professional team will administer this shot approximately every 9 weeks, typically on the same day as you receive your ALIMTA chemotherapy. To make sure that your treatment is most effective, make sure that you express your feelings and thoughts after each treatment cycle. 
 
 
How is the Mesothelioma Drug Administered?
 
 
ALIMTA is administered by a qualified healthcare professional. Your team of doctors will give you the drug only after it is mixed into a solution and given through a needle into your vein (intravenous infusion). Any combined chemotherapy drug, such as Cisplatin, will be administered through an IV. 
 
 
To treat malignant pleural mesothelioma cancer, ALIMTA is given in conjunction with cisplatin once every 3 weeks. The infusion of the drug is administered on the first day of the treatment cycle and will typically take 10 minutes. Cisplatin will then be infused over approximately 2 hours beginning roughly one half hour after the end of the ALIMTA administration. After these infusions, you will not receive any additional chemotherapy during the 3-week cycle. These rest days are needed and considered normal for ALIMTA mesothelioma cancer treatment. 
 
 
During your mesothelioma treatment, you will be given an oral steroid medication named corticosteroid. This drug helps minimize the risk of skin blisters and other side effects that occur with the use of this treatment. It is very important to take this steroid twice a day on the day before, the day of and the day following treatment unless your team of medical professionals gives you different instructions. 
 
 
Additionally, you will be forced to undergo regular blood tests before and during the ALIMTA treatment. You and your team of doctors will monitor all side effects associated with your mesothelioma treatment. Adverse signs and symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting and fatigue are a few examples of warnings that must be noted by you and your team of medical professionals. These side effects, if untreated, may only worsen to the point of severe. 
 
 
Before Taking ALIMTA:
 
 
Before taking ALIMTA you must:
 
 
Tell your medical professional and pharmacist all information connected to any allergies that you may have
 
 
Tell your medical professional and pharamacist what other medications (both prescription and nonprescription), supplements, herbal products and vitamins that you are taking or planning to take. 
 
 
Inform your doctor that you have a pleural effusion kidney disease (if applicable)
 
 
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant.
 
 

Navelbine

Navelbine

 
What is Navelbine?
 
 
Navelbine is an anti-mitotic chemotherapy drug that is administered as a treatment for certain types of cancer, including non-small cell lung cancers and breast cancer. Navelbine is the trade name given to Vinorelbine, which is the first 5’ NOR semit-synthetic vinca alkaloid. Navelbine is attained through semi-synthesis from alkaloids extracted from the rosy periwinkle.
 
 
Navelbine was invested by renowned pharmacist Pierre Potier. The drug was derived from CNRS in France during the late 1980s and was formally licensed to the oncology department of the Pierre Gabre Organization. Navelbine was first approved in France in 1989 for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancers. Navelbine then earned approval to treat breast cancer in 1991. Navelbine received formal approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration during the winter of 1994. The Pierre Fabre organization now markets Navelbine in the United States where the chemotherapy drug went generic in the winter of 2003. 
 
 
Navelbine: Common Side Effects
 
 
Navelbine has a multitude of side effects that ultimately limits its use. The most common side effect attached to Navelbine is a lowered resistance to infection, bleeding, bruising, constipation, explosive diarrhea, general feelings of fatigue and/or weakness, inflammation of the vein which the drug was injected, tingling of the hands and/or feet and headaches. Less common side effects associated with Navelbine use include: allergic reaction and hair loss. 
 
 
How Does Navelbine Fight Mesothelioma Cancer:
 
 
Navelbine is one of the newest chemotherapy drugs available on the market today. Navelbine is derived from a group of drugs referred to as plant alkaloids; these drugs are applied to stop cancer cells from multiplying or separating into multiple new cells. Navelbine may be administered in tandem with other chemotherapy drugs to combat mesothelioma cancer. 
 
 
Clinical trials for Navelbine have shown that roughly one quarter of all mesothelioma cancer patients–who applied the drug to their mesothelioma treatment plan—exhibited positive responses. This statistic is approximately 5% higher than the success rates for the bulk of chemotherapy drugs. In some instances, the patient’s mesothelioma cancer stabilized for several months.
 
 
Navelbine, as a mesothelioma inhibitor, is injected through the patient’s vein or via a central line. Navelbine may be also administered via a capsule. If your medical professional has chosen the capsule form, the drug must be taken with a full glass of water and you must stringently adhere to the schedule created by your doctor for your chemotherapy plan. Your doctor will determine the suitable dosage levels as well as the frequency of the Navelbine mesothelioma treatments. Navelbine dosage is dependent on your body weight, size, overall health and the stage of your cancer. 
 
 
Dissimilar to the majority of mesothelioma chemotherapy drugs, Navelbine does not work by altering the patient’s DNA structure. Instead, Navelbine interferes with the cancer’s cell division. 
 
 
During the cancer’s cell division process (referred to as mitosis), the cell’s DNA is replicated so that there are two identical sets of chromosomes, which are constructed with a series of micro tubes. These tools are utilized to attach themselves to the chromosomes; the micro tubes pull one copy to one side of the dividing cell and the other to the opposite side. The micro tubes are constructed by long chains of a distinct type of proteins referred to as tubulins. When administered, Navelbine binds itself to the tubulins to stop the microtubules from being formed. Without the application of functional microtubules, the call will not divide and eventually die. 
 
 
While Navelbine possesses a lower toxicity than most chemotherapy drugs, this particular mesothelioma drug still exhibits certain problems, including a reduction in the number of red blood cells and platelets. Navelbine may also cause granulocytopenia, which is regarded as a severe decrease in the number of white blood cells needed to fight infection. A doctor will typically recommend a patient to have white cell blood counts in the 1,000’s before Navelbine is administered. Dosage is subsequently adjusted depending on the blood counts measured on each treatment day. Pregnant women should avoid taking Navelbine because it is known to cause birth defects.
 
 
What is Mesothelioma?
 
 
Mesothelioma is a rare cancer that formulates from the alteration of cells in the mesothelium–a two-layered membrane that environs the lungs, abdomen and chest cavity. Mesothelioma is observed in three forms; each type is directly linked to prolonged asbestos exposure. Because of this relationship with the dangerous filament, individuals with a protracted history of asbestos exposure are at risk of developing the deadly disease.
 
 
When asbestos fibers are inhaled, the dust adheres to the mesothelium. These carcinogens foster tumors which are susceptible to proliferation. The destruction of protective tissues gives way to mitosis to remote areas in the body, including several vital organs. At this stage in the cancer’s life, malignant mesothelioma is regarded as inoperable.
When undisturbed, asbestos does not pose a risk to humans; however, when asbestos is contacted, carcinogenic dust is released into the atmosphere, thus becoming susceptible to inhalation. When asbestos dust is inhaled, the probability of developing mesothelioma significantly increases. 
 
 
The wide majority of mesothelioma cases may be observed in the abdomen cavity or the lungs. Common symptoms include: pleural effusion (build-up of fluids in the pleural cavity), painful swallowing, night sweats, chest pains, bowel obstruction, difficulty breathing, unexpected weight loss, and a painful cough.
 
 
Mesothelioma is difficult to diagnose during the disease’s earliest stages. Complications associated with mesothelioma diagnosis derive from the cancer’s slow-developing nature and fairly routine cellular structure. Mesothelioma symptoms will not present themselves until 25-50 years following the patient’s preliminary exposure to the deadly mineral.
Treatment for mesothelioma cancer is largely based on the stage (progression) of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. Mesothelioma stages represent the degree of the cancer’s proliferation; in its last stage (4th stage), mesothelioma has already spread to several organs beyond the point of origin. 
 
 
Because a delay in diagnosis, malignant mesothelioma prognosis is often bleak; the average survival time is 4 to 18 months. 
 
 
Mesothelioma may be detected in the following forms: pleural, peritoneum and pericardial. Pleural—the most common form of the cancer–attacks the pleural cavity, which is the thin layer of lubricating cells located between the chest cavity and lungs; Pericardium mesothelioma develops in the layer of tissues that protect the lungs; and peritoneum mesothelioma terminates the protective membranes surrounding the abdomen (the peritoneum). 
 
 
As stated above, treatment for mesothelioma cancers are elastic to the stage that the disease was diagnosed in. Details concerning mesothelioma stages are as follows:
Stage I Mesothelioma: During the first stage of the cancer, mesothelioma features a localized tumor located in the lining of the lungs, the diaphragm or the sac surrounding the heart. Securing a diagnosis at this stage is exceptionally rare. Those lucky enough to receive a 1st stage diagnosis may be ruled eligible for curative mesothelioma surgeries. These operations will attempt to extract cancerous tumors from the body.
 
 
Stage II Mesothelioma: In its second stage, the mesothelioma cancer spreads past the point of origin. The tumor may spread to the lymph nodes or chest wall. Although curative treatment methods may be undertaken for stage II mesothelioma patients, life expectancy is greatly decreased in this stage.
 
 
Stage III Mesothelioma: Tangible symptoms are noticed in this stage. The presence of symptoms makes diagnosis most common in stage III. Stage III mesothelioma cancer features proliferation to the lining of the peritoneum, the mediastinum, the heart or to the chest wall and/or diaphragm. Stage III mesothelioma sufferers face a vicious prognosis. This limited life expectancy warrants only palliative treatment options. Stage III mesothelioma cancer is not curable at this stage. Palliative treatment methods may be applied to boost the patient’s quality of life by mitigating the associated symptoms. 
 
 
Stage IV Mesothelioma: In its last stage, mesothelioma cancer features widespread proliferation to remote locations of the body. Because of this spreading, Stage IV mesothelioma is inoperable. Symptoms associated with stage IV mesothelioma are extremely painful. Similar to the cancer’s previous stage, only palliative treatment options may be applied to the sufferer. Median life expectancy for a mesothelioma stage IV mesothelioma patient is only 4 to 18 months.
 
 
If you or someone close to you has experienced a prolonged history of asbestos exposure, you must immediately schedule an appointment with a licensed medical professional. A physical examination and various imaging tests are necessary to observe your protective tissues and pleural space in the hopes of securing an early mesothelioma diagnosis. A doctor, after observing your history with asbestos, will request imaging tests, such as a CT scan, MRI and/or chest X-ray (the chest x-ray is often administered before the other imaging tests). If this pick-up on any irregularities, the doctor will suggest a biopsy; this evaluation extracts infected cells to affirm or rule-out a mesothelioma diagnosis.
 
 
Even if you do not notice any symptoms, seeking medical attention is a necessary precaution if you have a prolonged history of asbestos exposure. Early diagnosis is essential to mesothelioma treatment; although the cancer’s life expectancy is grim, your life may be prolonged or even saved if you secure early detection or an early diagnosis. 
 
 

Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine

 
What is Gemcitabine?
 
 
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog applied as a chemotherapy drug to combat several diseases, including mesothelioma cancer. Gemcitabine is administered through an IV and is extensively metabolized by the patient’s gastrointestinal tract. Generic gemcitabine dosage ranges from 1-1.2 g/m of body surface area depending on the type of cancer treated. 
Gemcitabine is utilized in various carcinomas” pancreatic cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer and bladder cancer. Gemcitabine is currently being investigated for utilization in esophageal cancer and is being tested for experimental use in lymphomas and four other tumor types. Gemcitabineis regarded as advanced means to fight pancreatic cancers. Gemcitabine is not as debilitating as some other forms of chemotherapy drugs. 
 
 
Gemcitabine, in 2000, became a prominent first line treatment method for Stage 4 bladder cancer with metastases; in this form, Gemcitabine is used in conjunction with cisplatin. This treatment method yields similar efficacy rates to former applied treatment methods, including the MVAC regimen. The Gemcitabine method involves taking cisplatin on the 2nd day of treatment and Gemcitabine on days 1, 8 and 15. In July of 2006, the Food and Drug Administration approved Gemcitabine for use in conjunction with carboplatin for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancers that have relapsed at least 6 months following completion of a platinum-based therapy. 
 
 
The most common adverse side effect associated with Gemcitabine use is Neutropenia (seen in roughly 90% of patients). Neuropenia is a granulocyte disorder characterized by an unusually low number of neutrophils, which is believed to be the most important type of white blood cell. Neutrophils primarily comprise 50-70% of circulating white blood cells and act as the primary defense mechanism against infections by terminating bacteria in the patient’s blood stream. 
 
 
Gemcitabine Chemotherapy to Combat Mesothelioma and Other Lung Cancers:
 
 
Gemcitabine is used a chemotherapy drug through GemCarbo chemotherapy, which is a mesothelioma treatment option, consisting of a combination of Gemcitabine and carboplatin. GemCarbo chemotherapy is utilized to treat several different forms of cancer; however, the method is most commonly applied to lung cancer patients. Gemcitabine, when used in conjunction with carboplatin, is typically given as a day patient treatment. GemCarbo chemotherapy requires a blood test the day before; following this precautionary test, the drugs are given via an infusion. 
 
 
The GemCarbo treatment method is applied as a 21-day cycle and on the first day of treatment the patient receives both the carboplatin and the Gemcitabine. On the same day next week (8th day) the patient is given a drip of Gemcitabine only. There then follows a recovery or rest period, which lasts two weeks. This completes one cycle of GemCarbo chemotherapy. The next cycle of treatment is applied after the patient’s rest period, which lasts three weeks after the first injection. Typically 4-6 cycles of lung cancer or mesothelioma treatment is given over a period of 3-4 months and this makes up the treatment method. 
 
 
Gemcitabine is produced by Eli Lily and Company and marketed under the pseudo name “Gemzar.” Gemcitabine act as artificial nucleosides, which are molecules in the body that serve as the building blocks for the bases that make up RNA and DNA. 
 
 
In regards to chemical structure, Gemcitabine is very similar to deoxycytidine; the hydrogen at the 2’ carbon position in deoxycytidine is merely replaced with fluorines to construct Gemcitabine. 
 
 
Gemcitabine is a pyridimine type of nucleoside that substitutes deoxycytidine, which is regarded as the normal building block of cytidine. Once these similar bases are inserted, growing tumor cells are arrested since new nucleosides cannot be attached to the synthesized “look alike” molecule. Cells that fall victim to this trick proceed into what is referred to as a programmed cell apoptosis or death—this phase is similar to what the body naturally does to kill a cell when something is wrong with it. In this light, the cancer cells are rapidly terminated, as oppose to growing rapidly. Unfortunately, this process does not only target cells, but healthy ones as well, therefore killing all cells in the body undergoing a DNA replication. 
 
 
Gemcitabine is applied in the treatment of mesothelioma cancer, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, non-small cell lung cancers, and breast cancer. When combined with cisplatin, Gemcitabine is applied as a first-line treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers or metastatic cancers that may not extracted through surgeries. 
 
 
Gemcitabine treatment is applied in a doctor’s office, hospital or clinic depending on the mesothelioma’s patient and what is deemed most suitable. Gemcitabine is administered as an infusion or IV drip. Gemcitabine is applied through a fine tube that is inserted into a large vein for short term therapy. For long term therapy, a port or central line is the medium for the drug; in this application, Gemcitabine is inserted under the skin into a vein near the collarbone or administered peripherally through a central catheter by way of a vein in the patient’s arm. When kept clean and infection-free, these ports are an easier means to administer Gemcitabine without the patient requiring needle sticks for each application. Administering Gemcitabine through IV typically takes about 30 minutes; however, this administration may take much longer if additional fluids or drugs are administered with Gemcitabine.
 
 
As is the case with all forms of mesothelioma medication, each person’s reaction to the drug is different. While some mesothelioma patients will observe few side effects, others may experience a significant number. Gemcitabine side effects vary from patient to patient and differentiate depending on whether the patient is given multiple chemotherapy drugs. 
 
 
Moreover, as is common with the bulk of chemotherapy drugs, financial assistance is available for patients that receive Gemcitabine therapy for their mesothelioma treatment. 
 
 
 
Side Effects of Gemcitabine:
 
 
The following side effects are common (occurs in more than 25% of cases) for patients taking Gemcitabine to combat lung or mesothelioma cancer: 
 
 
Fever (develops within 6-12 hours of first dose)
 
 
Fatigue
 
 
Nausea (typically mild)
 
 
Vomiting
 
 
Skin Rash
 
 
Poor Appetite 
 
 
Patients who take Gemcitabine to combat mesothelioma or other lung cancers will also experience low blood counts. Red and white blood cells, as well as platelets, may temporarily decrease, which in turn, increases the risk of infection, bleeding and anemia. Blood counts are at their lowest during Nadir, which is the point in all chemotherapy sessions where the patient has decreased blood cell rates. 
 
 
In addition to the above side effects, Gemcitabine in conjunction with carboplatin yields a temporary increase in liver enzymes and blood or protein levels in the patient’s liver. 
Less common side effects (observed in 10-20% of cases) for Gemcitabine use include:
 
 
Explosive diarrhea
 
 
Hair loss
 
 
Mouth Sores
 
 
Difficulty Sleeping
 
 
Shortness of breath and other problems with lungs
 
 
General fatigue/weakness
 

Gemcitabine

Navelbine